Indeed, signs of a renewed personal awareness can be seen all around us: people increasingly talk about spirituality , we are concerned about the environment, health and nutrition.
Our relationship with work has also changed. We have realized that it cannot be just a source of security and economic success, but must also include well-being in a broader sense. And this of course will reflect on overall results. It is the advent of the Economy of Awareness , as we call it at Branca! W hat role can Italy play in this change, given that ours is a country continuously dogged by cases of mismanagement? But Italy is a lot more than this. We have an innate humanity that has driven every positive development achieved throughout our millennia of history and that enabled us to perform extraordinary feats on a vast scale, but that in our daily life also nourishes and informs the actions of all our fellow countrymen.
Often unfortunately, by adopting a limited and short-term vision , we set our own interests against the interests of others and compete.
In this view, competing to achieve happiness can only be a contradiction. Our being nourishes itself on exchanges of value : only these can bring us long lasting riches. This review aimed to present the main environmental impacts related to livestock, especially as regards the emissions of greenhouse gases GHGs and the possible ways to mitigate these externalities.
The creation of ruminants in Brazil comes mainly extensively, often in areas of degraded pasture and hence low productivity.
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This fact enables the activity a great opportunity to reduce the impact to the environment, since actions taken to improve animal performance should result in a lower consumption of natural resources land and water and greater efficiency of the digestive system animal. The main problems identified by researchers in relation to cattle production are the methane emitted from enteric fermentation of ruminants, nitrous oxide emitted by feces of grazing animals and carbon dioxide exchanged by soil and vegetation.
Many factors influence the production of CH 4 from enteric ruminants, including the type of carbohydrate fermentation, the animal's digestive system, and the amount and type of food consumed. In this light, researchers have been working technologies to reduce methane emissions through improved food handling practices, manipulation of rumen by supplementation with monensin, lipids, organic acids and plant compounds.
Other strategies to reduce methane that were investigated are defaunation and vaccines, which seek to inhibit methanogens and methanogenesis. Thus, the search for more efficient production systems has been one of the prospects of livestock worldwide, aiming to reduce emissions and increase animal production. Keywords: global warming, mitigation, rumen manipulation, ruminants. Segundo Cottle et al. Segundo Pedreira et al. Nesse sentido, existe um comportamento diferente entre plantas forrageiras de clima tropical C 4 e de clima temperado C 3.
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Segundo Barioni et al. Primavesi et al. Foram observadas por Kurihara et al. Pedreira et al. Oliveira et al. Nesse sentido, Onetti et al. Willians et al. No entanto, Wright et al. A baseline projection of methane emissions by the Brazilian beef sector: preliminary results.
Christchurch, NZ. Nutritional management for enteric methane abatement: a review. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture , v. Ruminant enteric methane mitigation : a review. Animal Production Science , v. Ruminal methanogenesis as influenced by individual fatty acids supplemented to complete ruminant diets. Letters in Applied Microbiology , v. Jesuits did not merely engage Buddhism intellectually, however.
Many became practitioners of Zen Buddhism.
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Dumoulin, for example, was first encouraged in his study of Buddhism by Hugo Enomiya-Lassalle — , a Jesuit professor at Sophia University in Tokyo whom many consider the founder of modern Zen-Catholic dialogue. Sent to Japan as a missionary in , Enomiya-Lassalle became vicar of Hiroshima in and survived the nuclear bomb dropped by American forces on August 6, Not all Jesuit writers on Zen were originally missionaries. Studies of the missions continued apace during the heady years after the Second Vatican Council.
The s saw a general widening of perspectives in studies of the missions.
Jacques Gernet wrote a similar, but more general, study about Chinese responses to Christian missionaries. After the pioneering studies of Elison and Gernet, however, more attention was paid to the relationship of converts who wrote criticisms of Buddhism under the direction of the Society. Scholars also continued to discover new manuscripts. The American Jesuit Richard Sherburne — , a student of the Tibetan master Dezhung Rinpoche —87 introduced many English-speaking students—including the present author—to the study of Ippolito Desideri with an important article in a memorial volume for his teacher Turrell Wylie.
There was hardly any aspect of the previous historiography on Jesuits and Buddhism that was not continued and developed during these years. Scholarly treatments of the Zen-Catholic dialogue initiated by priests of the Society of Jesus compared the techniques of meditation in the two tradition, especially with regard to the Spiritual Exercises.
Lopez, a Tibetanist who has included Ippolito Desideri in several of his works treating the colonialist implications of the Western study of Buddhism. Despite these trends, much twenty-first-century scholarship continues in the grand tradition reaching back to Wessels, Hosten, Schurhammer, and Wicki. More directly, Thierry Meynard is quietly revolutionizing our knowledge of the Jesuit approach to Buddhism in China with series of articles, most notably pointing out the importance of the presentation of Buddhism in the Confucius Sinarum philosophus of Prospero Intorcetta —96 and Philippe Couplet —93 for European conceptions of Buddhism.
Nor does work in other Jesuit missions slacken. The first, which includes a monograph-sized introduction, footnotes aplenty, and translations of several related documents, is quite simply the standard work on Ippolito Desideri and the mission to Tibet. The second, a soon-to-be-published monograph and translation on Andrade, contains wonderful translations of the New Discovery of the Great Cathay , the Relation , the Annual Letter of , and three additional letters. Unlike Buddhist studies scholars in the tradition of Gernet, who have treated Jesuit missionaries as agents in the grand colonialist enterprise of Western imperialism, Sweet and Zwilling have taken the time to master the necessary scholarship on the history of the Society, the broadly Thomistic basis for its polemics, and the vast underbelly of manuscripts and primary sources related to Desideri and other missionaries.
As of this writing, there are no signs that such studies are slowing in pace or lacking in quality. All this bodes well for continued study of the long, storied engagement between the Society of Jesus and Buddhism. For contrasting accounts of the history of the Western encounter with Buddhism, see Henri de Lubac, S. Lopez, Jr. Though an Indian religion, Buddhism hardly survived there when the Jesuits arrived. See the comments to this effect in Anand Amaladass, S.
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Ep The characterization is John W. John W. Harris, and T. Ippolito Desideri D. Ricci, , 5—8. Cornelius Wessels, S. Ippolito Desideri S. Ippolito Desideri, S. Giuseppe Toscano, S.
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