Neo-liberal trade policies are intended to encourage free trade but many people, especially in developing countries, argue that it has not produced fair trade. Read more ….
Where did the ideas behind your position come from? It might seem impossible or, at least impractical, but every week four-wheel-drive trucks made in Japan bring crates of Coca-Cola to a remote Mayan community in the Yucatan of Mexico when the community lacks running water and electricity in their community. The same thing happens in villages in many parts of Africa and Asia. One explanation is that carbonated soft drinks are very profitable to sell but water is not.
This was explained in the module on Consumption. Two processes lie behind this paradox. The first includes the neo-liberal trade and economic policies we saw in the previous section. Neo-liberal policies favour private enterprise and discourage government investment in the sorts of social infrastructure that support education, health, public transport, housing and housing that contribute to social well-being. The second is the ever-increasing influence of multinational corporations. A multinational corporation MNC is a large company engaged in international production and sales.
The largest MNCs have raw materials extraction and production sites in many different countries, even often manufacturing different components of a product in different countries where it has a cost advantage. A growing amount of what we consume is produced from outside our own countries by MNCs whose purpose is to make a profit for their owners and shareholders.
Many of these companies have active corporate social responsibility programmes to assist the communities where they operate. Nevertheless, of the largest economies in the world, 51 are corporations while only 49 are countries, based on a comparison of corporate sales and country GDPs. Sometimes MNCs are so large that they transcend national boundaries in their operations and are know as transnational corporations TNCs. As a result, MNCs have the potential to strongly influence international trade and investment laws so that they can meet their need to make a profit.
Technology has been another principal driver of globalisation. Advances in transport and information technology, in particular, have dramatically transformed economic life. Developments in containerisation and bulk carrier shipping have enabled rapid and cost-effective transport while innovations in logistics and air-freight means that many goods — from African flowers to Chinese-made computers — can arrive in markets over-night.
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However, it is the rapid improvements in information and communication technologies that have provided some of the strongest drivers of globalisation in recent years. The global Internet and its associated capacity for financial transfers have provided companies with valuable new tools for:. Read more on the role of the Internet and globalisation. The rise of the Internet is only one of the many manifestations of globalisation and communication technologies.
The mass media have and are having a major impact on linking people and ideas around the world — from newspapers, radio and television, to Hollywood and Bollywood movies through to the Internet, Google, Web 2. And, in so doing, the lived experience of globalisation and the mental and cultural models of the world it creates serve to further encourage even greater globalisation of the economy, culture and politics. This can be an enriching process for many people, opening their minds to new ideas and experiences, and strengthening the universal values in a global culture of peace and understanding.
However, some commentators have noticed that the concentration of major entertainment and advertising industries in the United States as contributing to the decreasing diversity of global cultures. Around the world, these brands are identified with the United States and represent its dominance around the globe. Coca-Cola, Disney and McDonalds have myriad sales outlets, hundreds of country web sites and billions of dollars to spend on advertising, thus spreading Western ways worldwide.
Among the many results of this process are the loss of local cultural difference and the decline of world languages and the cultural experiences they contain. One of the major dimensions of the mental models created by globalisation has been the commodification — or commercialisation — of daily life. As a result, one part of the cultural impact of globalisation has been to create a global consumer culture.
This aspect of cultural globalisation was analysed in Module 9. The important point to note about consumerism is that it is both an effect and cause of on-going globalisation. Itself a product of the media, new communication technologies and the resultant normalisation of Western ways of life, consumerism drives global demand for new and more products which, in its turn, drives the sales of products of multinational corporations and entrenches economic globalization. In this way the driving forces of globalisation become self-reinforcing. Q Draw a diagram to illustrate the interconnectedness of these drivers of globalisation.
Each company also operates in a variety of fields beyond recorded music, including film making and distribution, publishing, electronics and telecommunications. This extends their influence to cover more markets within the global entertainment industry. Research the global music industry further. Q Explain how the global music industry illustrates the free trade, MNC, communications and consumer drivers of globalisation.
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Scholars have interpreted the interconnectedness of these drivers of globalisation in a number of ways. As a result, a number of different theories of globalisation has been proposed. Globalisation is experienced in many different ways in many parts of the world, and there are many different opinions about it. More ….
Review how globalisation is viewed in your country or a part of the world near, or like, yours. Globalisation has many strong advocates and many critics. Assessments of globalisation therefore depend on whose perspective is being expressed, their experience of globalisation, and its impact on their lives.
Such perspectives also depend upon whether or not the economic status, government, access to telecommunications, etc. Q What ethical dilemmas might you face if your views of globalisation as an individual and as a teacher are relatively similar? Q What ethical dilemmas might you face if your views of globalisation as an individual and as a teacher are very different? Review the principles that you could follow when teaching about a controversial issue such as globalisation, and compare them with the views of other teachers.
Urbanization and its implications for food and farming
Supporters of globalisation point to many improvements in standards of living around the world. Examples include:. However, critics argue that some of these improvements may not be due to globalisation but to national policies on education and land reform, for example. Others argue that these improvements may have been possible without the current form of globalisation and its negative consequences. The role of the Commission was to investigate the needs of people faced with the unprecedented changes that globalisation is bringing to their lives, their families, work places and communities.
The Commission looked at the various dimensions of globalisation, the diversity of public perceptions of the process, and its implications for economic and social development. The Report acknowledged the benefits of globalisation but concluded that the inadequate regulation of globalization at national and international levels i.
The negative results of these policies, it argues, is due to the fact that financial and economic priorities of free trade have consistently predominated over social ones, including measures to support international human rights and the principles of international solidarity. The dire results of this have been seen in the impacts of the global financial crisis of , which has increased prices for food in the most vulnerable people around the world.
The United Nations World Food Programme has investigated food security will be affected by the global financial crisis by conducting case studies in five countries — Armenia, Bangladesh, Ghana, Nicaragua and Zambia. The case study countries were especially selected to enable the findings to be generalised to other countries with similar socio-economic conditions. The major findings include:.
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The report found that families in these countries had to develop several strategies to cope with the global financial crisis. This included:. However, this is leading to higher malnutrition among children. Women are working longer hours and, therefore, have less time to take care of their children — and child labour is increasing. Q Compare and contrast the impacts of the global financial crisis on food security and health in your country and one of those studied by the World Food Programme.
A report by the World Bank predicted that global GDP will decline for the first time since World War II as a result of the failure of governments to regulate financial institutions and globalisation properly. The report also highlighted that the number of people living in poverty ie. The global financial crisis is also a major setback to progress on the Millennium Development Goals. For example, when poor households withdraw their children from school, there is a significant risk that they will not return once the crisis is over, or that they will not be able to learn what they have missed from months or years of poor or no school attendance.
The World Bank also warns that infant deaths in developing countries may be , — , per year higher on average between and the MDG target year of than they would have been if the global financial crisis did not occur. Source: Donnelly, C.
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